In summary, we have two software packages for non-destructive depth profiling:


QUASES-ARXPS which does the analysis from the variation of the peak intensity with angle


QUASES-Tougaard which does the analysis from the shape of the peak and the background taken at a single emission angle


QUASES-ARXPS includes the option to correct for elastic scattering which is important for high Z materials. The QUASES-ARXPS method does not work for rough surfaces and also not for flat surfaces when nano-structures are formed on the top. This is a general limitation of the ARXPS method which is caused by the shadowing effect. For large emission angles, the emitted electrons are attenuated as they pass through the neighboring nano-structures on the surface (see the figure). With ARXPS large angles can not be avoided because there is very little information in the variation of peak intensity with emission angle unless angles > 45 deg are included in the analysis.


QUASES-Tougaard does not have this limitation and works well also for rough and nano-structured surfaces because the analysis relies on the spectrum taken at a single emission angle so it is not necessary to measure at large angles.


Both software run well under Windows (XP, Vista, Win7 etc).


A paper which studies the roughness limitation to the ARXPS method:

"Surface roughness and island formation effects in ARXPS quantification"
A. I. Martin-Concepcion et al., Surf. Interface Anal. 2004; 36: 788

 Figure illustrating the problem with ARXPS for surfaces with structure (rough surfaces or a flat surface with nano-particles on top). This "shadowing" effect is avoided with the peak shape analysis method because only a single spectrum is used in the analysis.